The Evidence of Homeopathy



There are literally hundreds of high quality, published basic science, pre-clinical and clinical studies showing that homeopathy works.

If someone searches in PubMed, a renowned Medical Literature Record, with the key word “homeopathy”, about 5.000 of publications in medical journals appear; therefore no one may claim that there is not accessible and reliable medical information or that there is no place for Homeopathy in the space of Scientific Evidence.

Homeopathic Remedies are carriers of pharmacological information biophysically imprinted on water molecules contained in your homeopathic “sugar pills or tablets”.This information is reminiscent of the digital information of computers’ technology,with which modern societies are too familiar.

In the UK it is estimated that Homeopathy is growing 20% each year; it has been enrolled in the National Health System through an Act of Parliament from 1950 to the present.

The Swiss government has a long and widely-respected history of neutrality, and therefore, reports from this government on controversial subjects need to be taken more seriously than other reports from countries that are more strongly influenced by present economic and political constituencies. When one considers that two of the top five largest drug companies in the world have their headquarters in Switzerland, one might assume that this country would have a heavy interest in and bias toward conventional medicine, but such assumptions would be wrong.

In late 2011, the Swiss government’s report on homeopathic medicine represents the most comprehensive evaluation of homeopathic medicine ever written by a government and was just published in book form in English. This breakthrough report affirmed that homeopathic treatment is both effective and cost-effective and that homeopathic treatment should be reimbursed

The Swiss government’s inquiry into homeopathy and complementary and alternative (CAM) treatments resulted from the high demand and widespread use of alternatives to conventional medicine in Switzerland, not only from consumers but from physicians as well. Approximately half of the Swiss population have used CAM treatments and value them. Further, about half of Swiss physicians consider CAM treatments to be effective. Perhaps most significantly, 85 percent of the Swiss population wants CAM therapies to be a part of their country’s health insurance program. It is therefore not surprising that more than 50 percent of the Swiss population surveyed prefer a hospital that provides CAM treatments rather to one that is limited to conventional medical care.

Beginning in 1998, the government of Switzerland decided to broaden its national health insurance to include certain complementary and alternative medicines, including homeopathic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, herbal medicine, anthroposophic medicine, and neural therapy. This reimbursement was provisional while the Swiss government commissioned an extensive study on these treatments to determine if they were effective and cost-effective. The provisional reimbursement for these alternative treatments ended in 2005, but as a result of this new study, the Swiss government’s health insurance program once again began to reimburse for homeopathy and selective alternative treatments. In fact, as a result of a national referendum in which more than two-thirds of voters supported the inclusion of homeopathic and select alternative medicines in Switzerland’s national health care insurance program, the field of complementary and alternative medicine has become a part of this government’s constitution.

Evidence of Homeopathy in Medical Literature


You will find below only an actually small section of the scientific evidence and validation of homeopathy. Scientific research into homeopathy started in the 70s in mainland Europe, mainly in Germany, France and Switzerland, where this type of medicine is common place. At the time, public health agencies wanted to ensure that homeopathic remedies were assessed in the same way as chemical drugs. The results were so positive that several pharmaceutical companies invested in homeopathy.Nowadays, developing countries (primarily India, Russia, China, Cuba, South Africa and Brazil) have also become major centres of homeopathic research. The overall low-cost and easy availability of homeopathic products have convinced these countries to invest heavily into homoeopathy.
Finally, the USA has become a late entrant. Homeopathy seems to regain popularity among the American medical group, and several University medical centres have research on homeopathy, or “ultra-dilution” as it is called in some scientific quarters.

Certain indicative published articles in peer-reviewed medical journals follow:
Positive effects of homeopathic solutions on human white blood cells in inflammation
Mar. 2005 – New Scientist – Dr Ennis is a renowned pharmacologist at Queen’s University, Belfast. Her team conducted the effects of ultra-diluted solutions of histamine on human white blood cells involved in inflammation. The study shows a positive effect of the homeopathic solution. Dr Ennis concluded that “We are unable to explain our findings and are reporting them to encourage others to investigate this phenomenon.”

Antiviral Activity of Engystol Homeopathic Preparation

2005, The Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, vol. 11, No. 5, 855-862 (IAH), Oberbaum, M et al – compared to placebo, Engystol inhibited in cell cultures (in vitro study) the viral proliferation of different viruses: HSV-1 was inhibited by almost 80%, Adeno-5 Virus by 60% and the respiratory scyncitial virus (RSV) by 40%. Less inhibition occurred with the rhinovirus V14 and the flu virus (influenza A).

Inhibition of IL-1Beta and TNF Alpha Secretion from Resting and Activated Human Immunocytesby Homeopathic Medication Traumeel

(2004, Clinical & Developmental Immunology; 11(2): 143-149 (IAH), PorozoV S, Cahalon L, Weiser M, Branski D, Lider O, Oberbaum M) – This research showed that the homeopathic medication Traumeel inhibits the secretion of two cortisol-production inhibitors, and this allows inflammation regulation. This resulted in a strong reduction of the clinical symptoms of inflamed patients using Traumeel.

Behandlung der Gonarthrose Der Allgermeinarzt
2003,, 25 (4): 261-64, Birnesser H. Klein P, Weiser M – In a prospective, referenced-controlled multicentre cohort study of 592 patients suffering from mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee, the efficacy of Zeel homeopathic tablets was tested in comparison to Celebrex and Vioxx, two chemical drugs. In global assessments of tolerability, more than 90% of the patients in the Zeel group but only 74% of the chemical drugs’ groups reported “very good tolerability”. Parameters such as stiffness, pain and functionality of the knee were measured using the validated WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index. Overall results of the study revealed that with regard to efficacy, treatment with Zeel tablets is equivalent to therapy with chemical drugs.

Hepeel Homeopathic Remedy and its constituent plant tinctures – antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 cells

2003, Arzneimittel-Forschung / Drug Research, 53, No. 12 823-830 (IAH) Rob Gebhardt – The study was in-vitro. It showed that none of the Hepeel constituents and combinations had cytotoxic effects, and allowed reduction of MDA-production (Carduus Marianus was however most effective). The D4 homeopathic potency (or dilution) was the most effective, with reduction of over 70%.

Therapeutic use of homeopathic complex product – Lymphomyosot
1990, Biological Therapy, Volume VIII, No. 3 (IAH) –This is the result of a multicentre use observation study on 3,512 patients with lymph pathology (diverse, from lymphedema to tonsillitis). Overall, the study showed in practice good therapeutic results, especially in inflammatory conditions, where remarkable results were seen.

The Structure Of Liquid Water; Novel Insights From Materials Research; Potential Relevance To Homeopathy
Dec. 2007, Material Research Innovation. A scientific study about the molecular properties of a water by Rustum Roy (a well renowned research professor of materials at Arizona State University). It was accepted and published in September 2005. It is quoted by the Guardian on an article about homeopathy “Homeophobia’ must not be tolerated”.

Homeopathic Remedies to Kill Breast Cancer Cells

(Feb 2010 – “” CMA e-Newsletter) – This reports a study from the University of Texas’ Integrative Medicine Programme Unit, showing positive effects of homeopathic remedies (or “ultra-diluted” as they are called by many scientists) on breast cancer cells. The study was named “Cytotoxic effects of ultra-diluted remedies on breast cancer cells”, and a link can be found below. The body of the study clearly states the homeopathic products used.

Germany – Eczema – homeopathy as good as conventional treatment, 2006, Daily Mail.
The Daily Mail reported the results of a comparative cohort study of homoeopathic & conventional treatment of children with eczema. This was done by the Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics of the Charité University Medical Centre Berlin (D-10098 Berlin, Germany). The results were positive for homeopathy compared to conventional medicine, in both effectiveness and value-for-money. The study can now be purchased here:

A study of the effect of decimal and centesimal dilution of arsenic on retention and mobilization of arsenic in rats
(June 1987, JC Cazin et al., Human Toxicology). This is a research about artificially arsenic poisoned rated, and the impact of homeopathic remedies on the doses of intoxication and urinal excretion of arsenic. Dilutions above the number of Avogrado of arsenic had a significant impact according to this study.

Influence of homeopathic drug preparations on the phagocytosis capability of granulocytes, in vitro test and controlled single blind studies
Reprint from Arzneimittel-Forschung und Drug research; 1986 36(9): 1421-5 (IAH): Wagner H et al. . Important research was done by Prof. Wagner from the University of Munich (Germany). In this, he found that after 5 days of successive administration, the homeopathic drug Engystol increased the activity of granulocytes by 33.5%, the Gripp-Heel homeopathic drug achieved 30.8% and the two in combination achieved 40%. Echinacea, a known immunostimulator also had a positive effect at a 1/10.000 dilution.

Efficiency of tick biotherapic on the control of infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus in Dutch dairy cows
(Zilda Cristiani Gazim, Fabiana Borges Padilha Ferreira, Aristeu Vieira da Silva, Kelly Cristina Bolognese, Ewerton Merlin, Valdeci Messa, & al.). A study from the University Paranaense – UNIPAR, Umuarana, Brazil showing the positive results on infecting-cow ticks. A group of Dutch cows were divided in 2 groups: one group received 100g/day of mineral salt supplement impregnated with tick biotherapic 12CH for 6 months, and then in alternate days with tick biotherapic 30CH to complete 28 months of treatment; the control group received only the mineral salt supplement.

Use of Homeopathy for Dengue Fever by the Indian Public Health System
Hindu Times, 2 Dec. 12. This newspaper reported a successful governmental campaign of distribution of the homeopathic product ‘Eupatorium Perfoliatum,’ for dengue prevention. The treatment was conducted at six places in Karaikudi and the medicine supplied to 16,000 persons.

Nov 2010 – Homoeopathic Immunisation Against Leptospirosis in Cuba
A ground-breaking project with the successful use of homoeo-prophylaxis (= prevention using homeopathy) in Cuba involving millions of people. The target disease, Leptospirosis, is endemic there and the study demonstrated the effectiveness of this safe and low cost method.

Jul 2010 – Nobel laureate gives homeopathy a boost, The Australian
Professor Luc Montagnier, French virologist & winner of the Nobel prize of medicine is currently focusing his research in the low-frequency emission of homeopathic products (also called “ultra-dilutions” as they are so diluted that there is no physical remains of the primary substance). This has been widely reported in Europe and in the US.
Potential of the homeopathic remedy Arnica 30c (NOTE: “beyond Avogadro’s number”) to reduce DNA damage
This study examines to what degree an ultra-highly diluted homeopathic remedy, Arnica Montana 30C (AM-30C), used in the treatment of shock and injury, can modulate the expression of nucleotide excision repair genes in Escherichia coli exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. AM-30C helped repair the DNA damage through up-regulation of repair genes and also ameliorated the oxidative stress through the reduction of ROS generation and suitable modulation of anti-oxidative stress enzymes.

Strychnos nux-vomica extract and its ultra-high dilution reduce voluntary ethanol intake in rats
The scientists wanted to see whether Strychnos nux-vomica extract (mother tincture [MT]), its potency Nux 30c, and its principal alkaloid, strychnine, could reduce voluntary ethanol intake in rats. To analyze the solution structure of Nux MT, Nux 30c, 90% ethanol, and ethanol 30c by means of electronic (ES) and nuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The study concluded that Nux MT and Nux 30c could reduce ethanol intake in rats. The altered solution structure of Nux 30c is thought to mimic Nux MT and produce ethanol aversion in rats.

Potentized Mercuric chloride and Nux vomica facilitate water permeability in erythrocytes of a fresh-water catfish Clarius batrachus under acute ethanol intoxication
The primary biomolecular target of a homeopathic potency is unknown. If it is a plasma membrane protein such as water-channel protein, the drug would alter water permeation in cells. Therefore, the objective is to see if potentized homeopathic drugs like Mercuric chloride 30c and Nux vomica 30c could alter permeation of water through the erythrocytes of a fresh water fish under acute ethanol intoxication. The conclusion was that red blood cells (RBCs) from ethanol-injected fish permeated more water than those from normal fish. Water permeation was enhanced with Merc cor 30c and Nux vom 30c. RBCs from fish pretreated with Nux vom 30c imbibed more water in in vitro treatments than those from fish pretreated with Ethanol 30c. Check the following site for more information:

Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor expression in KATO-III cells after Helicobacter pylori stimulation under the influence of strychnos Nux vomica and Calendula Officinalis
Baseline expression and stimulation were similar to previous experiments, addition of Nux vomica 10c and Calendula officinalis 10c in a 43% ethanolic solution led to a significant reduction of H. pylori induced increase in gene expression of HB-EGF (reduced to 53.12+/-0.95% and 75.32+/-1.16% vs. control; p<0.05), respectively. Nux vomica 12c reduced HB-EGF gene expression even in dilutions beyond Avogadro’s number (55.77+/-1.09%; p<0.05). Nux vomica 12c in a 21.5% ethanol showed a smaller effect (71.80+/-3.91%, p<0.05). This effect was only be observed when the drugs were primarily prepared in ethanol, not in aqueous solutions. The data suggest that both drugs prepared in ethanolic solution are potent inhibitors of H. pylori induced gene expression.

Homeopathic treatment for peripheral nerve regeneration: an experimental study in a rat sciatic nerve transection model
Researchers from the Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, in Iran, the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Canada and the R&D Division, Azar Masoon Vaccine, Biological and Pharmaceuticals Distribution Company, Urmia, Iran have undertaken research (RCT) that proves that the homeopathic remedy, Hypericum improves the functional recovery of peripheral nerve regeneration. The research, published in the journal ‘Homeopathy’ was undertaken on rats and showed that, in the group who were treated with Hypericum, there was a faster and better recovery of regenerated axons and gastrocnemius muscle mass was significantly greater. The study can be purchased on Science Direct.

Two homeopathic remedies used intermittently provide additional protective effects against hepatotoxicity Induced by carcinogens in mice

Author: Nandini Bhattacharjee, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh , Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, India. See Science Direct website to purchase the study.
Homeopathic treatment for chronic disease: a 6-year University-Hospital outpatient observational study

2005 – Spence DS, Thompson EA – The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 11 #5, (ARH-Aut11). This scientific observational study of 6,544 patients suffering from a broad range of chronic conditions, including asthma, arthritis, chronic fatigue and so on, over 23,000 consultations, showed that 70.2% reported positive health changes. For the children in the group, the positive health changes were over 80%.

CAM Project, Northern Ireland, Mc Dade D – 2008 Evaluation, (ARH-Aut11)
This project, which included homeopathy referred by GPs, was commissioned by the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety. The overall patient experience showed a significant level of health gain for the vast majority of patients.
Patients’ assessment of effectiveness of homeopathic care in Norway

January 2005, Steinsbekk A, Homeopathy, Vol. 94, Issue 1 (ARH-Aut11). Over 70% of patients visiting Norwegian homeopaths reported a meaningful improvement of their main complaint 6 months after the initial consultation.

Audit of outcome in 829 consecutive patients treated with homeopathic medicine”, Sevar R, British Homeopathic Journal, Oct. 2000, Vol 89 No 4, (ARH-Aut11)
A study of patients treated with homeopathy after conventional treatment had been unsatisfactory or contraindicated, showed that 61% of them had a substantial improvement with homeopathy.

Treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea with homeopathy – randomized clinical trial in Nicaragua”, 1994, Jacobs J, Pediatrics, 93 – 719-725, (ARH-Aut11)
The trial involved 81 children aged between 6 months and 5 years in a randomized, double-blind trial of placebo versus homeopathy. The group treated with homeopathy had a statistically significant decreased in the duration of diarrhoea.

Acute Childhood Diarrhoea – replication of the 1994 trial carried out in Nicaragua – Nepal
Jacobs J, Jimenez M, Malthouse S, Chapman E…., Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 6, 2000, 131-139, (ARH-Aut11) – On a replication of the 1994 study (shown above), 116 Nepalese children were treated and the result showed significant improvement in the condition in comparison to the placebo-group.

Report on NHS practice-based homeopathy: analysis of effectiveness and cost of homeopathic treatment within a GP practice at St. Margaret’s Surgery, Bradford on Avon, Wilts
Christie EA, Ward AT, (ARH-Aut. 11) – A survey of homeopathic treatment within a GP homeopathic practice showed that 72% of patients showed improvement.

Homeopathy and Respiratory allergies: a series of 147 cases
Colin P – ‘Homeopathy’ – 95, 68-72 (ARH-Aut11). Reilly and colleagues conducted a series of trials in patients with hayfever, asthma and rhinitis. The results demonstrate a significant a reproducible difference between the placebo and the homeopathic groups.

Medical Study shows positive effect of homeopathic remedies on bovine sperm mitochondria activity
This study was conducted by the German Pharmaceutical company Heel to evaluate the effect of two homeopathic complexes Ubichinon compositum and Coenzyme compositum on bovine sperm mitochondrial activity. The tested homeopathic complex medicines stimulate the mitochondrial activity of bovine sperm without effects on their viability, acrosomal integrity or chromatin structure. The possibility that this translates into improved fertilization capacity in artificial insemination should investigated.

Positive Double Blind Study on Homeopathic Therapies for the side effects of chemotherapy
The prestigious International Journal of the Cancer Society published in August 2001 the results of a double blind pilot study, which studied the effects of antihomotoxical therapy in the treatment of chemotherapy induced stomatitis in children. Antihomotoxical therapy is a branch of Clinical Homeopathy, popularised by the German homeopathic pharmacy, Heel AG. Please contact the pharmaceutical company or the Journal for more information.

Double-blind controlled clinical study on arthritis patients show positive effects of homeopathic remedies compared to chemical painkiller
Published in the Journal of Biomedical Therapy (Fall 2000,: 10-1, Comparison of the efficacy and tolerance of Zeel Comp. and diclofenac for the treatment of gonarthrosis). In a multi-centre randomised, double-blind, controlled clinical study of 121 patients with mild to moderate arthritis of the knee, Zeel homeopathic tablets and the chemical drug Diclofenac were each administered. The validated, disease-specific, self-administered WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index showed treatment with Zeel tablets to be quivalent to Diclofenac therapy with regard to efficacy.

Decreased intensity of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in chorioallantoic membrane under Influence of ultra-diluted Belladonna extract
A 2010 Indian study, sponsored by the Ministry of Health, and published in the prestigious American Journal of Infectious Diseases (6 (2): 24-28, 2010 ISSN 1553-6203). It shows that ultra-diluted belladonna could inhibit JE virus infection. Ultra-diluted is a term used by some medical scientists who prefer not to use “homeopathic”.

Positive Results of a Homeopathic Drug Monitoring Study for Hayfever (allergic rhinitis)
(1994, Frase W. Weiser M. Antihomotoxic Treatment of Hayfever. Biological Therapy, Vol. 8, No. 3: 91-96). In a drug monitoring study, concomitant administration of Heel’s Luffa homeopathic complex preparation (nasal spray and tablets) was rated by over 70% of 1,090 hay fever patients as either “good” or “very good” therapy. A similar 6-week study in 1999 with 146 patients suffering from seasonal allergic rhinitis showed significant and lasting improvement, equivalent to that of cromolyn sodium. a chemical medication.

Successful use of homeopathy in a mass immunisation campaign in Cuba
A positive Cuban medical experiment was made public in January 2009. It was a large scale project of using homeopathy to reduce the effect of an epidemic Leptospirosis outbreak after tropical flooding). This is a remarkable event in a country that has very little access to medical chemical drugs, and has invested heavily in alternative medical approaches. This event was widely reported on alternative health sites and also in the medical world (such as the US Vaccine Convention in 2010), but had unfortunately no coverage in the main English-speaking media.

Homeopathic remedies show positive effects on brain activity
The San Francisco Chronicle reported in May 2011 a medical study from the Justus Liebig University in Germany that demonstrates to positive effects on brain waves as recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG), from the ingestion of homeopathic remedies. This is yet another scientific study from Germany, a country well in advance in terms integrated medicine.

Positive in-vitro study of a homeopathic product on HSV, RSV and Influenza Type A Viruses
Published in Nov. 2001 in Komplementarmedizin – Naturheilkunde, 2001 (8: 207-212 IAH – Antiviral action of Homeopathic Medication). The homeopathic product called Euphorbium Compositum has been tested in this in-vitro study of Metelmann and Glatthaar-Sallmuller. Three groups of plaques were created with cultured test cells. The first was infected with the virus and was added the homeopathic substance. The second was infected as well but a saline solution was added (placebo), and the third one was a negatice control (saline solution only). The inhibition on the proliferation was positive for the homeopathic preparation, at 35% for the HSV-1 virus, 35% for the RSV virus and 15% for Influenza Type A virus.

Effectiveness of Arnica 7C and Hypericum 15C for people suffering from dental neuralgia
Albertini H, Goldberg W, Sanguy B, Toulza CL. Homeopathic treatment of dental neuralgia by Arnica and Hypericum. Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy, 1985, 3, 126-129. Carried out at the Faculty of Medicine of Marseilles, placebo controlled study, twice as many people on homeopathy responded positively compared t the placebo group.

Effects of the homeopathic preparation Engystol on interferon-gamma production by human T-lymphocytes

Enbergs H., Immunol Invest. 2006, 35, 1, 19-27. In one of the few experiments carried out in this area to date, researchers conducting this study collected T-lymphocytes from 30 healthy human volunteers to investigate the ability or otherwise of a homeopathic combination product to increase the production of interferon-gamma from these cells. After exposure to various concentrations of this combination, when compared to control cells, interferon-gamma producing cell levels were increased by a means of 20.9% to over 24% with no dose-dependence of the effect at the concentrations tested.

Double blind placebo controlled trial, 50 children suffering from post-operative pain and agitation
Alibeu JP, Jobert J. Aconite in Post-Operative Pain and Agitation in Children, Pediatrie, 1990, 45, 7-8, 465-6. Effects of Aconite were significantly better than placebo.

Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract – comparison of a homeopathic complex remedy with the chemical drug xylometazoline
Ammerschlager H., Klein P., Weiser M., Oberbaum M., Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005, Feb, 12, 1,:24-31. In a multi-centre, controlled, cohort study, 739 people suffering from rhinitis or sinusitis were given either xylometazoline (a drug commonly used for nasal congestion, sinusitis and hay fever) or a homeopathic combination. Both forms of therapy provided similarly effective results but the homeopathic treatment has significantly less side-effects.

The effect of Gencydo homeopathic injections on hayfever symptoms: a therapeutic causality report on homeopathy
Baars EW, De Bruin A. J Altern. Complement Med. 2005 Oct, 11, 5, 863-9. In this study, 13 Dutch medical practitioners submitted patients (who between them had a mean history of hayfever of 9 years), for therapy involving injections of a combination homeopathic product. All but 1 patient were given the medication before the onset of the hayfever season and all were given it during the hayfever season. Of these 13, during the course of the trial 9 people found no increase in nasal and non-nasal hayfever symptoms when the hayfever season began or during it and only 1 of the 13 felt compelled to use conventional hayfever medication.

Zinc: Immunoglobin relationship in patients with cirrhosis of the liver before and after treatment with Zincum Metallicum 5CH
Baduluci S, Chirulescu Z, Chirila P, Rosca A. – International Research Group on Very Low Dose and High Dilution Effects, 1993 Giri Meeting, British Homoeopathic Journal, April, 1994, 83, 84-100. 10 people suffering from Zinc deficiency as determined by atomic absorption spectrophotemetry were treated with Zincum metallicum 5CH. Analysis following this treatment showed a substantial improvement in zinc levels.

Can homeopathy bring additional benefits to thalassemic patients on hydroxyurea therapy? Encouraging results of a preliminary study
Banerjee A, Chakrabarty SB, Karmakar SR, Chakrabarty A, Biswas SJ, Haque S, Das D, Paul S, Mandal B, Naoual B, Belon P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2010 March; 7(1): 129–136. In this observational study, 38 people suffering from thalassaemia who were taking hydroxyurea, were allowed to continue their use of hydroxyurea but were given one of several homeopathic medicines. The effects of this additional treatment were compared to the outcomes of another 38 people suffering from thalassaemia who used hydroxyurea alone, assessed immediately before and at 3 months after starting the homeopathic treatment. Of a range of haematological and clinical parameters, those people using the combined treatment showed an increase in levels of foetal haemoglobin over those on hydroxyurea alone, along with a reduction in serum ferritin. Where splenomegaly was present, a significant reduction in this was noted in those on the combined therapy and this group also noted an improvement in general health with a longer period allowed between blood transfusions.