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Cervicitis is inflammation of the uterine cervix. Cervicitis in women has many features in common with urethritis in men and many cases are caused by sexually transmitted infections. Death may occur. Non-infectious causes of cervicitis can include intrauterine devices, contraceptive diaphragms, and allergic reactions to spermicides or latex condoms. The condition is often confused with vaginismus which is a much simpler condition and easily rectified with simple exercises. Vaginitis, also known as vaginal infection and vulvovaginitis, is an inflammation of the vagina and possible vulva.It can result in discharge, itching and pain,and is often associated with an irritation or infection of the vulva. Infected women may also be asymptomatic.

It is usually due to infection. The three main kinds of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. A woman may have any combination of vaginal infections at one time. Testing for vaginal infections is not a part of routine pelvic exams. If there is discomfort in the vulvovaginal area, women can request their health care providers evaluate for the presence of an infection.

A woman may have vaginal itching or burning and may notice a discharge.The discharge may be excessive in amounts or abnormal in color(such as yellow, gray, or green).The following symptoms may indicate the presence of infection:

irritation and/or itching of the genital area

inflammation (irritation, redness, and swelling caused by the presence of extra immune cells) of the labia majora, labia minora, or perineal area

vaginal discharge

foul vaginal odor

pain/irritation with sexual intercourse

Diagnosis is typically suspected based on a women’s symptoms. Diagnosis is made with microscopy (mostly by vaginal wet mount) and culture of the discharge after a careful history and physical examination have been completed. The color, consistency, acidity, and other characteristics of the discharge may be predictive of the causative agent. Determining the agent is especially important because women may have more than one infection, or have symptoms that overlap those of another infection, which dictates different treatment processes to cure the infection. For example, women often self-diagnose for yeast infections but due to the 89% misdiagnosis rate, self-diagnoses of vaginal infections are highly discouraged.

Another type of vaginitis, called desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) also exists. The cause behind this type is still poorly understood. DIV corresponds to the severe forms of aerobic vaginitis. About 5 to 10% of women are affected by aerobic vaginitis.

Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).Most HPV infections cause no symptoms and resolve spontaneously. In some, they persist and result in warts or precancerous lesions. The precancerous lesions increase the risk of cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, anus, mouth, or throat. Nearly all cervical cancer is due to HPV with two types, HPV16 and HPV18, accounting for 70% of cases. Between 60 and 90% of the other cancers are also linked to HPV. HPV6 and HPV11 are common causes of genital warts and respiratory papillomatosis.

HPV infection is caused by a human papillomavirus, a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family, of which over 150 types are known. More than 40 types are transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anus and genitals. Risk factors for persistent HPV infections include early age of first sexual intercourse, multiple partners, smoking, and poor immune function. HPV is typically spread by sustained direct skin-to-skin contact with vaginal and anal sex being the most common methods. Occasionally, it can spread from a mother to her baby during pregnancy. It does not spread via common items like toilet seats. People can become infected with more than one type of HPV.